The construction project of an Artillery Museum in Turin dates back to 1731. In that year Carlo Emanuele III, King of Sardinia, ordered the Marshal of Rebhinder to gather a Congress under his presidency aiming to examine various issues about the Artillery service and to put into action the measures that had to be submitted to the king. The Congress submitted to the King several proposals, among which those for the constitution of an Artillery Museum. On 18th April 1731, the King Carlo Emanuele III ordered the marquis Foschieri to put into action his proposals. In some rooms of the Royal Arsenal (become today Army Training School) the Artillery Museum was born. On 1st December 1752 the Management Office of the Museum was instituted as well as the Mineralogical Laboratory that disappeared under the French domination.
In 1842 the Artillery Royal Corps Commander, the Major General Vincenzo Morelli of Popolo, proposed to build it up again in order to collect the models of national and foreign portable weapons, artilleries, bridge materials, war artifices, munitions, tools and lab machines, bombers and dust factories. The Artillery Captain Annibale Avogadro of Valdengo was appointed Director until 1846. In 1861, after having become National Museum of Artillery, it was under the direction of the Artillery Captain Angelo Angelucci, passionate student and talented military writer; he was the Direction until 1885. In 1893 the Municipality of Turin loaned the Mastio of the Citadel, the only surviving element of the fortification that Emanuele Filiberto wanted in 1564, to the Military Administration in order to position the Museum of Artillery. In the same year the Museum was inaugurated.