On 20th February 1690 the fusiliers Regiment of His Royal Highness was constituted and in December 1710 it absorbed the "Santa Giulia" Regiment; since 16th September 1774 it is named "Aosta" Regiment.
With the "Savoy" and "Lombardia" Regiments, in December 1798 it constituted the 1st Line Half Brigade that was dissolved in May 1799. In its first 109 years the Regiment fought in the campaigns of Lega Augusta (1690-1697), in the War of Succession in Spain (1701-1713), in Sicily (1718-1719), in the War of Succession in Poland, in the War of Succession in Austria (1742-1748) and Franco-Piedmontese on 1792-1796.
The "Aosta" was reconstituted in July 1814 and on 1st November 1815 it was named "Aosta" Brigade. Since 4th May 1839 it took the name of 5th Regiment and on 15th October 1871 of 5th "Aosta" Infantry Regiment. Until the outbreak of the First World War the Regiment was employed in the First War of Independence in 1849 (Silver Medal to the Military Valour), in the repression of brigandage (1861), in Aspromonte in 1862 (Bronze Medal to the Military Valour), in the Second War of Independence in 1859 (Golden Medal to the Military Valour), in the Third War of Independence (1866) and provided with personnel for Eritrea (1895-1896) and Libya (1911-1912).
In the First World War the "Aosta" Regiment fought in Conca di Plezzo, Ravnillaz, Zagora, on Carso, Doberdò, Cima Debeli and Pecinka, on Col della Berretta, Col Moschin and Cà d'Anna, Montello, Vittorio Veneto and Mount Valderoa. After three years of war the Regiment deserved the Military Order of Italy, given to all the infantry regiments, and a Golden Medal to the Military Valour.
In the period between the two world wars it provided with personnel for Eastern Africa (1935).
After having formed the "binary" Divisions in 1939, at the outbreak of the 2nd World War (10th June 1940) it was included in the "Aosta" Infantry Division with the 6th and 22nd Artillery Regiments. Employed for the defence of Sicily, it fought without fortune against the Angio-Americans in July-August 1943. Retreated from the front with the others of the Division, it was sent to Trentino to be reorganized but it was dissolved after the conflicts that followed the armistice of 8th September 1943.
Reconstituted on 20th September 1944 as 5th "Aosta" Internal Security Regiment with units of the 46th "Reggio" Infantry Regiment, it was employed for the control and patrol of the territory. On 1st September 1946 it was renamed 5th "Aosta" Infantry Regiment, located in Messina where it is still situated. After the reorganization of the Army, on 1st October 1975 it became a battalion as 5th "Col della Berretta" Motorized Battalion. On 31st August 1992 it was changed again into a regiment.
The Regiment was employed during the "Sicilian Vespers" Operation.