The military imprisonment dates back to the period before the unification, on 16th October 1822 that was when the "Military Chain" was constituted in Genoa in response to a specific "royal viglietto".
The Military Penitentiary Organization Command was constituted on 12th December 1873 by Ministerial Decree n. 242 in order to reorganize the military imprisonment sector with particular reference to the need of developing the managing activity of the 13 military prisons.
The Command, rebuilt in the historical location of Gaeta in 1949 after the suspension of activities for the Second World War , was then moved to Sulmona and finally to Santa Maria Capua Vetere.
Since 1873 200,000 detained people have passed through the military prisons on the national territory. The history of this Organization has intersected that of our Nation in an evolutionary process.
The Military Penitentiary Organization, that is now part of the High Organization of the Armed Force, has got inter-force skills and many inter-ministerial relations; it has also got the task of ensuring the imprisonment of military personnel and that belonging to the Corps available to the Military Judicial Authority and the Ordinary Judicial Authority. Thanks to its exceptionality and uniqueness of the functions performed, the Organization is considered the high Authority for the management of prison treatment in military prisons.
On 5th June 2008 the General Staff of the Army established its badge for the personnel of the Military Penitentiary Organization. The badge has got the shape of a Samnite shield with gold edge and white background; in its centre it has got a red stripe with the traditional colours of Campania Region and a gold Eagle that represents the General Staff of the Army.