The Artillery originates from the Artilleries of Piedmont that were the initial nucleus.
In 1625, by decree of 30th July, Carlo Emanuele of Savoy established that the personnel of Bombardiers had to be part of the Militia and gathered in a Company. That measure was the first step to the constitution of the Artillery.
On 27th August 1774 the Artillery Royal Corps was constituted; by decree of 6th January 1815 it was divided into five categories: on foot (General Command, General Staff of the battalions, schools and factories), provincial (for the mobilization), detachable (for the service in campaign), royal of Sardinia and sedentary (composed by personnel in offices). In the same year also the towing of pieces and materials became a service of the Corps when the Artillery Train was constituted.
During the Risorgimento the Artillery continued its development absorbing the artilleries of other pre-unification Countries such as Lombardia in 1849. Three groups participated in the campaign of Crimea in 1855. Some substantial changes concerned the structure but, by decree of 17th June 1860, the Artillery structure was reorganized, absorbing batteries of Tuscany and Emilia: the Artillery of the Italian Army was created. It was composed of eight regiments: the 1st of workers; the 2nd, 3rd and 4th for square; from the 5th to 8th campaign regiments.
The participation in the campaigns of the Risorgimento, the use of new vehicles and the strengthening led up to the creation of new specialties and regiments such as the coastal artillery, the mountain artillery, the heavy artillery, the field artillery and the fortress artillery. By Royal decree of 23rd December 1909, the War Flag was entrusted to the Artillery and it was entrusted to the oldest Regiment in Rome.
The Artillery participated in the First World War with 49 campaign regiments, one on horseback, 3 mountain regiments, 2 heavy field regiments, 10 fortress regiments, 18 batteries and 3 anti-aircrafts sections. The conflict led up to the development of the anti-aircrafts specialty and the relaunch of the "bombardiers". Most of the units constituted in occasion of the Great War were dissolved in the first twenties.
In 1939, at the eve of the Second World War, the Artillery started to grow again and in June 1940 it had 54 campaign regiments, 3 fast regiments, 5 alpine divisions, 18 Army Corps, 6 Guards on the borders regiment, 2 armoured regiment, 5 anti-aircrafts regiments and 2 motorized regiments. During the war the unit increased with the development of the self-propelled specialty and paratroopers.
In 1943, after 8th September, there still were the following regiments: 11th "Legnano", 184th "Nembo", 7th "Cremona", 35th "Friuli", 152nd "Piceno" and 155th "Mantova", regimented in the 1st Motorized Group, the Italian Corps of Liberation and the Combat Groups.
In 1946 the regiments started to be reconstituted, according to the needs of the Armed Force. The enlargement process stopped in 1975 with the first reorganization of the Army. The regiments became independent Groups. During the nineties there were regulating variants, reviving the regimental level, and since 1999 the Artillery has organized in two specialties: land specialty and anti-aircrafts specialty.