The UN Military Observer Groupin India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) was a UN mission with the area of responsibility along the border between the two Countries. Established by the UN Security Council Resolution 47 (1948), it expanded the responsibilities of the UN Commission for India and Pakistan (UNCIP). That Commission was previously established by the UN Security Council by Resolution 39.
The first military observer non-armed group arrived to the mission area in January 1949 to control, in the State of Jammu and Kashmire, the cease-fire between India and Pakistan and to help the UNCIP military advisor.
The observers' tasks, defined by the military Adviser, were: going with the local Authorities during their investigations; collecting as much information as possible; reporting in a complete, accurate and impartial way if possible, avoiding direct interference between the warring parties.
At the end of 1971, hostilities between India and Pakistan broke out again, firstly along the eastern Pakistan borders, by the movement for the independence that developed in that region and ended with the creation of Bangladesh.
In July 1972, India and Pakistan signed an agreement that defined a control line in Kashmir and that was similar to the Karachi agreement of 1949.
In that way India decreed the end of the UNMOGIP mandate, in accordance with the Karachi agreement.
Pakistan did not agree. In view of the disagreement of the two parties on the UNMOGIP mandate and its functions, the UN Secretary-General decided that any change to UNMOGIP had to be determined by the Security Council; if not, the UNMOGIP maintained the same process and terms established after the cease-fire of 1971.
Since January 1949 Italy contributed to the Mission with 4 units of the Army that came back to the Homeland on 30th March 2015.