After the worsening of the internal situation in FYROM (Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia) due to the pro-Albanian guerrilla called UCK, on 15th August 2001 an entente between NATO and FYROM was signed; it was also authorized the sending of the first contingents called "Task Force Harvest". The Force was formed on the base of the 16th British Aircraft Brigade divided into four multinational battalions, headed by France (with German and Spanish contribution), Greece, Britain (with Dutch contribution) and Italy, including a Turkish unit. The national component was constituted on the base of the 152nd "Sassari" Infantry Regiment that was joined by an armoured combat squadron of the "Savoy Cavalry" Regiment and some elements of the Signal Corps.
The passage of competences from the Operation "Essential Harvest" to the Operation "Amber Fox" took place on 4th October 2001. The national Forces employed for the new Operation were taken from those in the Macedonian Republic. "Amber Fox" was a mission consisting in the international monitoring by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and by the European Union (EU). The Italian Army had the task of "contributing, along with the other NATO Countries, to support the international observers that operated on the territory in order to maintain the political stability in FYROM". In the Operation, with a brigade-level Command, Italian staff participated, deployed mainly in Petrovec, of the 3rd Alpines Regiment, the 5th Lancers Regiment "Novara", the 183rd Paratroopers Regiment "Nembo", the 66th Aircraft Regiment "Friuli".
When the Operation "Amber Fox" finished on 15th December 2002, the following day the Operation "Allied Harmony" started as a continuation of the previous mission; Italy participated with an armoured combat platoon of the "Novara Lancers", an EOD unit (Explosive Ordnance Disposal) and a staff unit.
"Allied Harmony" ended on 31st March 2003 when it was substituted by the first military mission of the European Union called "EUFOR CONCORDIA".